Current laws and theorems of physics are not sufficient to explain the ever increasing expansion rate of our visible universe, dark matter, dark energy and other such events of the cosmos. More laws of physics and phenomena need to be discovered to explain all these. Here is my article, being worked upon since, a very long time. Please note that this is not the general theory of vacuum. This article may or may not suit your needs or may, not at all be beneficial to you or be proved or disproved.
The Sunny Saini Theory of Vacuum: Vacuum wants to be vacuum. Vacuum hates and dislikes matter. For this, vacuum produces a force known as a push force or the Anti-Gravity force, that tends to push every matter out of the vacuum. The anti-gravity force by the vacuum is directly proportional to its volume and inversely proportional to the sum of some positive powers of the mass contents (mass in the form of particulate matter and radiation energy in mass terms). Although, the Anti-Gravity push force is very feeble for a small sized vacuum, it does exist and tends to push every matter out of it. Thus,
F = S x V / (m^p + r^q)
where F is the force of repulsion due to Anti-Gravity by the Vacuum, S is the Sunny Constant, V is the volume of the Vacuum, m^p is the mass raised to some positive power p and r^q is the radiation energy in terms of it mass value, raised to some positive power q. Here, both types of total masses are to be considered - the total mass of the particulate matter in the vacuum (Particulate matter of the Standard Model) and the radiation energy in terms of mass (E=mc^2), available in the vacuum. I don't have enough scientific aid and facility to calculate the value of S, p and q, so I leave this job for scientists who are currently working in this field. Most probably, the value of p would be 2 and the value of q would be some larger decimal number.
On the Earth, when we create a vacuum, then due to the force of negative pressure, it tends to be immediately filled up with gaseous matter. Even the atoms/molecules of the container of the vacuum, rip off the walls to fill up a strong vacuum. But in space, especially the inter galaxy-cluster space, the large voids and the super-voids, the anti-gravity push force by vacuum is considerable due to very large volume and purity of the vacuum. For such large and pure vacuums, no matter can easily enter the vacuums. Resistance will exist.
Just like the force of attraction by mass is a natural physical phenomenon due to gravity, the force of repulsion by vacuum is a natural physical phenomenon due to anti-gravity. The reason for the anti-gravity is Sunny-A bubbles described later in this article.
Shape of Vacuum: Vacuum has no shape. The shape of a vacuum is decided by the surrounding matter.
Cylinder shaped vacuum produces more force at its ends than its curved surface. Any photon or other matter particle shot along the longitudinal axis of a large cylindrical vacuum will not continue along the axis of the cylinder, but will tend to move to the curved surface of the cylindrical vacuum.
Now, consider four equal sized very large cylindrical vacuums placed vertically parallel at small distance close to each other. Let the height of the cylinders be about 3 times the cross sectional diameters. Now place one galaxy-group at the top ends and the other galaxy-group at the bottom ends of the cylindrical vacuums. Fill the surroundings of the cylinders with equal distribution of gaseous matter. After some time, the outward force of the vacuums will push the two galaxy-groups apart. Also, the curved surface of all the cylinders will meet and push the matter away from the cylinders and also towards the central longitudinal space caused by the four cylinders. The central longitudinal matter will then become the galactic filament. The four cylinders now join to become, somewhat, one bigger cylinder with the galactic filament along its longitudinal axis. But, due to high gravity of the galactic fiber and its position in the central axis of the large cylindrical vacuum, the vacuum will not be able to push the galactic filament material and throw it outwards. The initial push force of the vacuum here, works as DARK ENERGY.
Now, consider a large ovoid vacuum. Place two equal sized galaxies in the ovoid such that one, say Galaxy-A, is at somewhat center of the ovoid and the other one, say Galaxy-B, near by it at some distance. Let the empty portion of the space between Galaxy-A and farthest edge, away from Galaxy-B of the vacuum, be Space-A and Let the empty portion of the space between Galaxy-B and the farthest edge at the other side of the vacuum, be Space-B. Since the portion Space-A is larger than the portion Space-B, Space-A will push Galaxy-A with more force towards Galaxy-B. The direction of movement will be assisted by both the Gravitational pull between the two galaxies and the push force by the vacuum. On collision and merging into one larger Galaxy, the overall push force of the vacuum will not let the galaxies go too far beyond each other. Thus, the vacuum here acts as DARK MATTER.
Therefore, the push force of a vacuum due to anti-gravity, largely depends on the 3D Geometrical shape of the vacuum, purity of the vacuum, nearby presence of other vacuums, shapes of other vacuums and the matter surrounding the vacuums. Purest Ideal vacuum is the vacuum devoid of both standard model particles and radiations. The anti-gravity force is more in the core of a pure vacuum as concentration of Sunny-A bubbles is more in the core of a good and pure vacuum.
Similar to the cylindrical vacuums, you may consider eight equal sized spherical vacuums joined together. Keeping one galaxy-group at the center where all eight spheres join. Then after all eight spheres join to create one large vacuum, the final vacuum will have the galaxy-group in the center with six arms of galactic material touching the surface of the large final vacuum, depending on the arrangement of the matter surrounding the large combined vacuum.
So, it is the combination of the gravity of a fast spinning galaxy and vacuum's push force due to anti-gravity, that pushes the peripheral matter of the galaxy inwards, which in turn prevents throwing the peripheral matter out of the galaxy. The Sunny-A bubbles concentration in the inter-galaxy space is more than that within the galaxy space and still more in the super-voids. The galactic filaments are also created due to the push forces of such vacuums. The ever increasing rate of acceleration of expansion of our visible universe can also be understood by these vacuum voids and super-voids in our visible universe. Keep small heavenly objects at the centers of the voids and the expansion rate of our visible universe will decrease. Here, small means the gravitational force of the placed object is equal to (in magnitude) the anti-gravity produced by the void. Caution!, don't place larger objects or you may collapse the Universe, Ha Ha.
So, the DARK ENERGY and DARK MATTER are nothing but the ANTI-GRAVITY FORCES produced by the VOLUMES, SHAPES, PURITY, INTER-DISTANCES of the vacuums and their interaction with the matter and interaction with other vacuums.
Sunny-G and Sunny-A, the Cold Genesis: At absolute zero temperature or near or below it, and in the absence of any particulate matter and radiant energy, the pure vacuum generates the entity pairs - Sunny-G particles and Sunny-A bubbles (G for Gravity and A for Anti-gravity). Matter and radiation restricts the pair generation. Sunny-G is THE tiniest particle. Tiniest than all of the current Standard Model particles (Quarks, Leptons etc.) and anti-particles (positron, antiproton, antineutron, etc). Sunny-G is the basic building block particle from which all other particles of the Standard Model can be built in a very large black hole as described later in this article. Both Sunny-G particles and Sunny-A bubbles are stable and do not annihilate in ordinary conditions. These are NOT the virtual particles of the Quantum Mechanics, that annihilate themselves immediately after birth in vacuum and that are responsible for the so called Hawking Radiation near a black hole's event horizon. Both Sunny-G and Sunny-A are neutral and do not possess charge. Sunny-G particle possesses gravity due to infinitesimally small mass while Sunny-A bubble possesses anti-gravity due to infinitesimally small and equal NEGATIVE MASS. Both Sunny-G particles and Sunny-A bubbles move away instantly after birth. Sunny-A bubbles push away Sunny-G particles. All Sunny-G particles start to join slowly due to their gravity and all Sunny-A bubbles start repelling Sunny-G particles as well as other Sunny-A bubbles. Sunny-A bubbles are responsible for expanding the Universe. Sunny-G particles can stick to the particulate matter of the current Standard Model without modifying it much. Sunny-A bubble, is very stable at high temperatures and is not affected by ordinary radiation. However, at very large temperature (may be at absolute hot or so), Sunny-A bubbles absorb the energy and vanish along with that energy radiation quanta. After Sunny-A bubbles merges with extremely high energy quanta, nothing remains in that part of the vacuum and anti-gravity effect due to that part of the vacuum becomes zero. Sunny-A bubbles also restrict the motion of photons and reduce the speed/energy of light. My theory of vacuum stands on the existence of Sunny-A bubbles. There are lesser Sunny-A bubbles in galaxies due to more radiation and temperature, than in the intergalactic space. This is the reason why total anti-gravity effect is more in the inter-galactic space than within the galaxy space. Most probably, we can not detect Sunny-A bubbles by ordinary scientific experiments however, their existence may be proved by some specialized scientific method(s) in the near future. Detailed analysis of a standalone galaxy in the heart of a super-void will definitely give clues about Sunny-A bubbles. Sunny-G particles may also, NOT be detected in the LHC, being too small to be detected by the sensors. Some special technique is required to detect these particles too. The present techniques by laser cooling and evaporative cooling are only sufficient to create temperature within micro kelvin range. In future, techniques will be available to approach very near to 0 kelvin or may be, below it. Then, creating the Bose-Einstein Condensate from photons that arrived by passing through a super-void or from the gas collected from deep space, may give clues to the Sunny-G particles. Please note that the Sunny-A bubbles are neither particles nor real bubbles. Exactly, I don't know what they are and what is their size and shape. The only thing I can say at present, is that they have negative mass and negative energy.
Sunny Black Hole, the Big Bang Seed: When very large number of Sunny-G particles accumulate due to gravity, at the core of the cloud of the Sunny-G particles, heat starts increasing due to compression. However, there is no nuclear fusion because, it can not happen among Sunny-G particles. After a very very long time (many times greater than the total life of our visible universe), a massive special Black hole is created that I call a Sunny Black Hole. At different temperatures and pressure, at different times of increasing mass of the Sunny Black Hole, different particle-seeds of the Standard Model (not full particles, only seeds) are formed inside the Sunny Black Hole, just before falling into the Singularity. Full Particles of the Standard Model are created from these particle-seeds, only after a Big Bang. Also, the seeds for current Super Massive Black Holes that resides in the centers of almost all galaxies are created in the core of the Sunny Black Hole. The SMBH seeds resides in the very central part of the singularity in the Sunny Black Hole. This very massive Sunny black hole continues to grow and reaches a threshold level that I call “The Sunny Saini BB Threshold”. Again, I leave the calculation of “The Sunny Saini BB Threshold” in terms of Solar Masses, to Scientists and Scientific Research Organizations. Most probably, it will be more than the mass of all currently visible matter of our universe. At “The Sunny Saini BB Threshold” limit, a Big Bang occurs. Note that the Sunny Black Hole is not an ordinary black hole. The Sunny Black Hole is a seed for a Big Bang. It has neither a visible event horizon nor a visible accretion disk. Generally, size of an ordinary behemoth Black holes can not grow on its own, above the so called 50 billion solar mass limit. This is due to the fact that all matter outside the event horizon is converted into energy. But, a Sunny Black Hole is different in that respect. The matter falling into the Sunny black hole is just the Sunny-G particles that can not emit light or get converted into energy outside the event horizon. This is due to non-reachable temperature and pressure outside the Sunny Black Hole event horizon. The temperature and pressure outside the Sunny Black hole event horizon can not generate photons or other matter of the Standard Model from Sunny-G particles thus, no visible accretion disk. Therefore, the Sunny Black Hole continues to grow its mass without any restrictions, until the Sunny Saini BB Threshold reaches. Finally, a Big Bang occurs and a Universe is born. The result of the explosion is not just plasma, but also the seeds that forms current galaxies' central-SMBHs soon after the Big Bang. Most plasma also escapes deep into the space or to the other universes and does not remain part of the freshly created universe. Thus, there are three types of black holes – Sunny Black Holes, SMBHs in the galaxies' centers and ordinary black holes created from large stars late after the Big Bang.
Similar big bang and birth of a universe can also occur from an ordinary behemoth black hole if many such large black holes combine to reach the Sunny Saini BB Threshold. The Standard Model Particle-Seeds are already present in most of such ordinary behemoth black holes.
Some of the Sunny-A bubbles are also eaten up by the Big Bang due to extremely high temperatures. This is the reason why expansion rate of our Universe before the so called 5 billion years age was less – because, all Sunny-A bubbles within the boundaries of the new born Universe were eaten up by the Big Bang. Now, the expansion of our Universe is more due to more production of Sunny-A bubbles in pure vacuums.
Thus, the Universe we see is not the full Universe but only the Visible Universe. At the outer edges of our Visible Universe, there exist a very very large vacuum. Beyond this very large vacuum space, there exist other Visible Universes (visible only to the people of those visible universes), created by other Big-Bangs at different times. The space holding the multi-universes is so vast that if I say that a Big-Bang occurs every few billion years, might not be an exaggeration.
Fate of Our Visible Universe: It is quite possible that the expansion rate of our visible universe may increase exponentially due to the anti-gravity produced by Sunny-A bubbles of the super-voids and gravity of other visible universes. The matter of our visible universe will be pushed outwards. Now, again consider eight spheres but of different sizes this time, kept closely joined together as an analogy to fully expanded eight visible universes of different sizes. Consider the somewhat diamond shaped empty volume at the center, where all eight spheres join. After a very long time, there will be extremely large black holes at the the central volumes of such large spheres-join. Other visible universes will merge at the periphery, with our visible universe at different times. And just like we see galaxy-clusters joined together with galactic filaments, some galaxy-clusters and other matter will serve as inter-universe filaments. The larger black holes at the central volume of spheres-join, may cause a big bang to create a fresh Universe provided, the Sunny Saini BB Threshold is reached. Or they may be pushed in one of the other Universes.
Other scenario is that, the recently detected 1.8 billion light years wide super void (the Cold Spot) may increase to an enormous size, many many times larger than the current size of our universe and some Sunny Black Holes are created there after a very very long period, one of which may cause another Big Bang. Then, a new Universe within our largely expanded visible Universe will be born.
There is quite a possibility that the oldest very massive behemoth black hole (800 million solar masses), recently detected at the edge of our universe has been pushed in from another nearby Universe. Not sure though.
My theory of vacuum explains why the time of collision between two heavenly bodies is sometimes reduced and does not strictly follow the Gravitational Law.
My theory of vacuum explains why light bends to form gravitational lensing to create more than the required effect. Careful analysis of distance of farthest object, distance of lense causing object and the amount of deviation of light will be helpful in determining the strength of the anti-gravitational push by the nearby vacuums.
My theory of vacuum explains why speed/energy of photons is reduced in large voids. Note that the Sunny-A bubbles can not be considered as a dense medium like glass. Entering dense medium like glass, the photons bends towards the normal, whereas Sunny-A bubbles, simply don't like any matter and tends to repel them outwards.
My theory of vacuum explains what in fact, is the dark matter and the dark energy. My theory of vacuum DEFIES the current assumption of 67% (or so) of the universe MASS as dark matter. As per my theory, both the dark matter and dark energy effects are due to Sunny-A bubbles that have negative mass/energy.
My theory explains why various costly experiments including LUX, SIMPLE, PICASSO, etc. could not detect dark matter particles. My simple reasoning is that the particles do not exist. The dark matter effect is due to the Anti-Gravity push compression by the vacuums. The search should be done for Sunny-A bubbles instead of WIMPs or axions. However, the problem is that a high concentration of Sunny-A bubbles will be available only in the core of the super-voids.
My theory give hints for why speeds of rotation of primordial galaxies were less. Most probably, the galaxies are compressed with time due to the dark matter effect by the vacuums and to conserve the angular momentum, the speed of rotation of the present age rotating galaxies have increased.
As per my theory, Einstein's vacuum is the vacuum devoid of Sunny-G particles and Sunny-A bubbles. Speed of light will surely decrease in pure vacuum that contains quite high concentration of Sunny-A bubbles. Thus, the age of our Universe actually, may be less than the declared age.
If anyhow, we could capture Sunny-A bubbles, these could serve as a high speed efficient projectile fuel.
It appears that the simulation supercomputer program to which mass of dark matter is added to produce current state of the Universe will give more appropriate results, if instead both Sunny-G particles and Sunny-A bubbles are added to it.
This article is the result of my hard work of so many years and is my Intellectual Property. This article has been time-stamped. So, please do not violate my IP rights.
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